Acute illness and basic emergency triage

The best place to go when your child is sick is to your doctor. But if you feel your child needs to be seen urgently, call for an ambulance or go to your nearest emergency department. You know your child best. If you are worried, take them to see a doctor.

There are general features of a serious and acute childhood illness that should prompt you to see a doctor urgently. These include:

Alertness and irritability
your child is unusually drowsy or floppy  your child is unresponsive your child has a high-pitched, continuous cry
Breathing

your child has difficulty breathing is breathing quickly has shallow breaths is grunting

Skin colour and appearance

your child is pale or bluea purple or red rash that doesn’t go away when you press it

Fluids in and fluids out

your child won’t drink, is not passing urine, or has less than half the usual number of wet nappies repeated vomiting

Childhood illnesses that need urgent medical attention

There are some important and acute childhood illness you should be aware of. You need to get your child to a doctor if you are concerned they may have one of these conditions:

Meningitis

Meningitis is an inflammation of the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord that is commonly caused by an infection. Meningitis can be life-threatening. Signs include a headache, a sore and stiff neck, vomiting and being unable to look at bright light. There might also be a rash that does not go away when you press the skin at the site of the rash.

A seizure (fit)

seizure or fit is caused by rapid and uncoordinated electrical activity in the brain. It can cause stiffening and jerking of the arms and legs, and a loss of consciousness. Children can have a seizure when they have a very high temperature. This is known as a febrile convulsion and is quite common. Seek urgent medical attention if this is your child’s first seizure, the seizure lasts for more than 2 minutes, or if they have trouble breathing or they injure themselves.

Urinary tract infection

urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the bladder, urethra, ureters (urine tubes) or kidneys. Symptoms include pain or burning when your child urinates, a need to urinate often, blood in the urine, fever, and an uncomfortable feeling in the lower abdomen. If untreated, UTIs can lead to kidney infection. See your doctor if your child has any of these symptoms, if their urine is pink, red or brown, or they have a high, unexplained fever.

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an inflammation or infection of the lungs caused by a bacteria or virus. It can follow a cold. Symptoms include a high fever, fast and difficult breathing, a cough, vomiting, and pain in the chest. Children with pneumonia can often be looked after by your doctor, but go to hospital if your child is less than 1 year old, has severe breathing problems, cannot take their medicine, or is dehydrated.

Sepsis

Sepsis, also known as ‘septicaemia’ or ‘blood poisoning’, is a serious blood infection caused by bacteria. It can follow an infection anywhere in the body. Seek urgent medical attention if your child looks mottled, bluish or pale, if they are very lethargic, feel cold when you touch them, are breathing very fast, have a rash that does not fade when you press it, or have a seizure.

Asthma

Asthma is a common illness in children. It causes wheezing, coughing and problems with breathing. About 1 in 4 children will wheeze at some time during their childhood. But it is a medical emergency if your child has severe wheezing, coughing or shortness of breath, their reliever (puffer) is not helping, your child cannot speak and their lips look blue, or their symptoms get worse very quickly.

Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be life threatening. Children who have an anaphylaxis need an adrenalin injection (such as an EpiPen). Call an ambulance if your child has difficulty breathing or swallowing, their tongue is swollen, their throat is swollen or tight, they are having problems talking, lose consciousness or collapses. 

We at Kids Docs childrens clinic offer Basic EMERGENCY services and triage care to newborn and kids.

Triage is the process of rapid assessment of a patient with a view to define urgency of care & priorities in treatment. It helps in rational allocation of limited resources, when demand exceeds availability. 
Triage is the first step in the management of a sick child admitted to a hospital.
when to see a doctor in your child's acute illness and basic emergency triage
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